Special technical information tools (audio, cinema, video) are called informational technologies. With the advent of computers there is a new term – “new information technology learning”. The term “information and communication” is a combination of different technology options and points to the specifics of interactive learning – the dialogue in the “user-computer” system. In practice, the technology is used in three ways:
- “Penetrating” (used in the process of studying certain topics, sections for solving specific didactic tasks);
- “Basic” (defining, especially in the technology of programmable and distant learning forms, etc.);
- mono-technology (the whole process of learning and management, including all kinds of diagnostics and monitoring, is based on the use of a computer).
Informatization of the educational process involves widespread use in the process of studying educational subjects of information-oriented training facilities based on modern computers and telecommunication networks. These include informatization of the system of management of an educational institution, creation of databases and information processing, participation in international projects, etc. Widespread use of information and communication technologies (programmable learning, expert systems, multimedia, simulation, subject computer lessons) contributes to the implementation of a person-centered approach to students, phased mastering of knowledge, skills, and abilities. Expected results: formation of skills to work with information, development of communicative abilities.
Typology of educational technologies
In the theory and practice of school work, there are many variations of the educational process. Each author introduces something individual into his educational process, therefore, the author’s technologies can be distinguished among the other. However, many technologies in their purpose, content, methods and means have similar features and can, therefore, be grouped into several generalized groups. Researchers distinguish the following classes of technologies by the essential features (target orientation, nature of the interaction between student and teacher, organization of training, etc.). This classification does not allow students to apply the proposed approaches in practice.
Describing the model of this classification, we rely on the following:
– the need to take into account centuries-old domestic and foreign experience; – modern realities of the transition period of statehood formation of the national idea, and, consequently, the peculiarities of the system of education and science; – new philosophical concepts and paradigms. The concept of educational technology in school can be closely correlated with the next definition: “Educational technology – a complex consisting of: – some idea of the planned learning outcomes; – means for diagnosing the current state of those who are taught; – a set of training models; – criteria for selecting the optimal model (to data specific conditions). The training model includes two levels. The upper level – methods and forms, the lower level – is a pedagogical technique (means and techniques). The intuition, manner of behavior, facial expressions, and teacher’s gestures also complement the lower level. ” Technologies are divided into: – universal, which are used in teaching of any subject; – limited – in the teaching of several subjects; – specific – for one or two subjects. As we see, the leading principle of classification is the main role performed by this or that discipline
1) subjects, the leading component of which is scientific knowledge – physics, biology, geography;
2) objects whose main component are kinds of activity – foreign language, drawings, physical education, computer science;
3) subjects, such as literature, history, fine arts, music, etc.
The authors of the methodical manual distinguish three groups of technologies:
- technology is developed on the basis of a specific philosophy, methodology of education, pedagogical idea;
- personally oriented learning technologies, which create conditions for the students’ own educational activity, development of their individual characteristics;
- technology of developmental education, which focuses on the way of learning, which prompts the inclusion of internal mechanisms of personal development of students, their intellectual abilities.
Significant features and features of the explanatory and illustrative teaching method. External signs:
- broadcast of the finished training content, informing;
- domination of learning about students, monotony, and conservatism in content and forms;
- regulation, performance;
Therefore, “educational technology” is considered by us as a derivative of a new type of education, the essential features of which are: – technology is developed on the basis of specific philosophy, methodology of education, pedagogical idea, based on which – value orientations, target settings of the author or the team, focused on the concrete expected result; – the technological chain of pedagogical actions is structured in accordance with the stated goal and must guarantee all pupils the achievement of a life perspective and a high level of assimilation of the state standard of education; – the functioning of the technology involves the interconnected activity of teachers and students, taking into account the principles of personally oriented developmental education and upbringing and individualization; – the gradual and consistent introduction of elements of pedagogical technology can be reproduced by any teacher, taking into account author’s approaches; – an organic part of the technology is the diagnosis and monitoring of performance, the forms of control can be varied, but all of them can be done by pro-papers assignment writing service; – deep psychologization of educational technologies. Acquiring new technologies of education and education requires an internal readiness of the teacher to serious work on transforming himself.
With the emergence of new educational technologies, it became necessary for teachers to work hard on themselves to master it. But not every teacher is capable of significant changes.